2020-08-07 22:14:58  来源:人民网-人民日报海外版
菲律宾出现首例新冠病毒肺炎死亡病例 系中国外首例 


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    It is well known that several animals, belonging to the most different classes, which inhabit the caves of Styria and of Kentucky, are blind. In some of the crabs the foot-stalk for the eye remains, though the eye is gone; the stand for the telescope is there, though the telescope with its glasses has been lost. As it is difficult to imagine that eyes, though useless, could be in any way injurious to animals living in darkness, I attribute their loss wholly to disuse. In one of the blind animals, namely, the cave-rat, the eyes are of immense size; and Professor Silliman thought that it regained, after living some days in the light, some slight power of vision. In the same manner as in Madeira the wings of some of the insects have been enlarged, and the wings of others have been reduced by natural selection aided by use and disuse, so in the case of the cave-rat natural selection seems to have struggled with the loss of light and to have increased the size of the eyes; whereas with all the other inhabitants of the caves, disuse by itself seems to have done its work.It is difficult to imagine conditions of life more similar than deep limestone caverns under a nearly similar climate; so that on the common view of the blind animals having been separately created for the American and European caverns, close similarity in their organisation and affinities might have been expected; but, as Schi?dte and others have remarked, this is not the case, and the cave-insects of the two continents are not more closely allied than might have been anticipated from the general resemblance of the other inhabitants of North America and Europe. On my view we must suppose that American animals, having ordinary powers of vision, slowly migrated by successive generations from the outer world into the deeper and deeper recesses of the Kentucky caves, as did European animals into the caves of Europe. We have some evidence of this gradation of habit; for, as Schi?dte remarks, 'animals not far remote from ordinary forms, prepare the transition from light to darkness. Next follow those that are constructed for twilight; and, last of all, those destined for total darkness.' By the time that an animal had reached, after numberless generations, the deepest recesses, disuse will on this view have more or less perfectly obliterated its eyes, and natural selection will often have effected other changes, such as an increase in the length of the antennae or palpi, as a compensation for blindness. Notwithstanding such modifications, we might expect still to see in the cave-animals of America, affinities to the other inhabitants of that continent, and in those of Europe, to the inhabitants of the European continent. And this is the case with some of the American cave-animals, as I hear from Professor Dana; and some of the European cave-insects are very closely allied to those of the surrounding country. It would be most difficult to give any rational explanation of the affinities of the blind cave-animals to the other inhabitants of the two continents on the ordinary view of their independent creation. That several of the inhabitants of the caves of the Old and New Worlds should be closely related, we might expect from the well-known relationship of most of their other productions. Far from feeling any surprise that some of the cave-animals should be very anomalous, as Agassiz has remarked in regard to the blind fish, the Amblyopsis, and as is the case with the blind Proteus with reference to the reptiles of Europe, I am only surprised that more wrecks of ancient life have not been preserved, owing to the less severe competition to which the inhabitants of these dark abodes will probably have been exposed.Acclimatisation


   The following day Dantes presented Jacopo with an entirelynew vessel, accompanying the gift by a donation of onehundred piastres, that he might provide himself with asuitable crew and other requisites for his outfit, uponcondition that he would go at once to Marseilles for thepurpose of inquiring after an old man named Louis Dantes,residing in the Allees de Meillan, and also a young womancalled Mercedes, an inhabitant of the Catalan village.Jacopo could scarcely believe his senses at receiving thismagnificent present, which Dantes hastened to account for bysaying that he had merely been a sailor from whim and adesire to spite his family, who did not allow him as muchmoney as he liked to spend; but that on his arrival atLeghorn he had come into possession of a large fortune, lefthim by an uncle, whose sole heir he was. The superioreducation of Dantes gave an air of such extreme probabilityto this statement that it never once occurred to Jacopo todoubt its accuracy. The term for which Edmond had engaged toserve on board The Young Amelia having expired, Dantes tookleave of the captain, who at first tried all his powers ofpersuasion to induce him to remain as one of the crew, buthaving been told the history of the legacy, he ceased toimportune him further. The following morning Jacopo set sailfor Marseilles, with directions from Dantes to join him atthe Island of Monte Cristo.

   'Why, a batter-pudding,' he said, taking up a table-spoon, 'is my favourite pudding! Ain't that lucky? Come on, little 'un, and let's see who'll get most.'


   "Sir, give me something; you are not, surely, the poorest manhere; you seem to be a chief, foremost among them all; therefore youshould be the better giver, and I will tell far and wide of yourbounty. I too was a rich man once, and had a fine house of my own;in those days I gave to many a tramp such as I now am, no matter whohe might be nor what he wanted. I had any number of servants, andall the other things which people have who live well and are accountedwealthy, but it pleased Jove to take all away from me. He sent me witha band of roving robbers to Egypt; it was a long voyage and I wasundone by it. I stationed my bade ships in the river Aegyptus, andbade my men stay by them and keep guard over them, while sent outscouts to reconnoitre from every point of vantage.







    Morrel obeyed; the count arose, and unlocking a closet witha key suspended from his gold chain, took from it a littlesilver casket, beautifully carved and chased, the corners ofwhich represented four bending figures, similar to theCaryatides, the forms of women, symbols of the angelsaspiring to heaven. He placed the casket on the table; thenopening it took out a little golden box, the top of whichflew open when touched by a secret spring. This boxcontained an unctuous substance partly solid, of which itwas impossible to discover the color, owing to thereflection of the polished gold, sapphires, rubies,emeralds, which ornamented the box. It was a mixed mass ofblue, red, and gold. The count took out a small quantity ofthis with a gilt spoon, and offered it to Morrel, fixing along steadfast glance upon him. It was then observable thatthe substance was greenish.




   Then Eumaeus said, "You have perceived aright, as indeed yougenerally do; but let us think what will be our best course. Willyou go inside first and join the suitors, leaving me here behindyou, or will you wait here and let me go in first? But do not waitlong, or some one may you loitering about outside, and throw somethingat you. Consider this matter I pray you."

  本周二,高等教育研究机构Quacquarelli Symonds(QS)公布的最新《QS世界大学学科排名》显示,中国约有88所大学的学科进入全球400强。




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