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时间:2020-08-07 00:56:29
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日期:2020-08-07 00:56:29

1.   I think these views further explain what has sometimes been noticed namely that we know nothing about the origin or history of any of our domestic breeds. But, in fact, a breed, like a dialect of a language, can hardly be said to have had a definite origin. A man preserves and breeds from an individual with some slight deviation of structure, or takes more care than usual in matching his best animals and thus improves them, and the improved individuals slowly spread in the immediate neighbourhood. But as yet they will hardly have a distinct name, and from being only slightly valued, their history will be disregarded. When further improved by the same slow and gradual process, they will spread more widely, and will get recognised as something distinct and valuable, and will then probably first receive a provincial name. In semi-civilised countries, with little free communication, the spreading and knowledge of any new sub-breed will be a slow process. As soon as the points of value of the new sub-breed are once fully acknowledged, the principle, as I have called it, of unconscious selection will always tend, perhaps more at one period than at another, as the breed rises or falls in fashion, perhaps more in one district than in another, according to the state of civilisation of the inhabitants slowly to add to the characteristic features of the breed, whatever they may be. But the chance will be infinitely small of any record having been preserved of such slow, varying, and insensible changes.I must now say a few words on the circumstances, favourable, or the reverse, to man's power of selection. A high degree of variability is obviously favourable, as freely giving the materials for selection to work on; not that mere individual differences are not amply sufficient, with extreme care, to allow of the accumulation of a large amount of modification in almost any desired direction. But as variations manifestly useful or pleasing to man appear only occasionally, the chance of their appearance will be much increased by a large number of individuals being kept; and hence this comes to be of the highest importance to success. On this principle Marshall has remarked, with respect to the sheep of parts of Yorkshire, that 'as they generally belong to poor people, and are mostly in small lots, they never can be improved.' On the other hand, nurserymen, from raising large stocks of the same plants, are generally far more successful than amateurs in getting new and valuable varieties. The keeping of a large number of individuals of a species in any country requires that the species should be placed under favourable conditions of life, so as to breed freely in that country. When the individuals of any species are scanty, all the individuals, whatever their quality may be, will generally be allowed to breed, and this will effectually prevent selection. But probably the most important point of all, is, that the animal or plant should be so highly useful to man, or so much valued by him, that the closest attention should be paid to even the slightest deviation in the qualities or structure of each individual. Unless such attention be paid nothing can be effected. I have seen it gravely remarked, that it was most fortunate that the strawberry began to vary just when gardeners began to attend closely to this plant. No doubt the strawberry had always varied since it was cultivated, but the slight varieties had been neglected. As soon, however, as gardeners picked out individual plants with slightly larger, earlier, or better fruit, and raised seedlings from them, and again picked out the best seedlings and bred from them, then, there appeared (aided by some crossing with distinct species) those many admirable varieties of the strawberry which have been raised during the last thirty or forty years.In the case of animals with separate sexes, facility in preventing crosses is an important element of success in the formation of new races, at least, in a country which is already stocked with other races. In this respect enclosure of the land plays a part. Wandering savages or the inhabitants of open plains rarely possess more than one breed of the same species. Pigeons can be mated for life, and this is a great convenience to the fancier, for thus many races may be kept true, though mingled in the same aviary; and this circumstance must have largely favoured the improvement and formation of new breeds. Pigeons, I may add, can be propagated in great numbers and at a very quick rate, and inferior birds may be freely rejected, as when killed they serve for food. On the other hand, cats, from their nocturnal rambling habits, cannot be matched, and, although so much valued by women and children, we hardly ever see a distinct breed kept up; such breeds as we do sometimes see are almost always imported from some other country, often from islands. Although I do not doubt that some domestic animals vary less than others, yet the rarity or absence of distinct breeds of the cat, the donkey, peacock, goose, &c., may be attributed in main part to selection not having been brought into play: in cats, from the difficulty in pairing them; in donkeys, from only a few being kept by poor people, and little attention paid to their breeding; in peacocks, from not being very easily reared and a large stock not kept; in geese, from being valuable only for two purposes, food and feathers, and more especially from no pleasure having been felt in the display of distinct breeds.To sum up on the origin of our Domestic Races of animals and plants. I believe that the conditions of life, from their action on the reproductive system, are so far of the highest importance as causing variability. I do not believe that variability is an inherent and necessary contingency, under all circumstances, with all organic beings, as some authors have thought. The effects of variability are modified by various degrees of inheritance and of reversion. Variability is governed by many unknown laws, more especially by that of correlation of growth. Something may be attributed to the direct action of the conditions of life. Something must be attributed to use and disuse. The final result is thus rendered infinitely complex. In some cases, I do not doubt that the intercrossing of species, aboriginally distinct, has played an important part in the origin of our domestic productions. When in any country several domestic breeds have once been established, their occasional intercrossing, with the aid of selection, has, no doubt, largely aided in the formation of new sub-breeds; but the importance of the crossing of varieties has, I believe, been greatly exaggerated, both in regard to animals and to those plants which are propagated by seed. In plants which are temporarily propagated by cuttings, buds, &c., the importance of the crossing both of distinct species and of varieties is immense; for the cultivator here quite disregards the extreme variability both of hybrids and mongrels, and the frequent sterility of hybrids; but the cases of plants not propagated by seed are of little importance to us, for their endurance is only temporary. Over all these causes of Change I am convinced that the accumulative action of Selection, whether applied methodically and more quickly, or unconsciously and more slowly, but more efficiently, is by far the predominant power.
2. 其次,作为锤子科技创始人,罗永浩曾与雷军平起平坐,坐而论道,一旦投入雷军门下,天生骄傲的他,将不得不仰视雷军,任人差遣,这将使他难以克服的心理障碍。
3. 为避免人员聚集导致的交叉感染风险,减少观众不必要的出行,本次退票目前仅通过线上进行,从2月1日起至6月30日,将提供长达150天的宽裕退票时间,观众无需来现场办理。
4.   Dame Martha!
5. 范九林的技术、意识都非常好,很多人认为范志毅的足球天赋和他父亲不能比。
6. 可见,工读学校的矫正教育效果不错。


1. 我的观点,未来整个社群零售、社群渠道比拼的是做群的质量和能力。
2.   In plants the same gradual process of improvement, through the occasional preservation of the best individuals, whether or not sufficiently distinct to be ranked at their first appearance as distinct varieties, and whether or not two or more species or races have become blended together by crossing, may plainly be recognised in the increased size and beauty which we now see in the varieties of the heartsease, rose, pelargonium, dahlia, and other plants, when compared with the older varieties or with their parent-stocks. No one would ever expect to get a first-rate heartsease or dahlia from the seed of a wild plant. No one would expect to raise a first-rate melting pear from the seed of a wild pear, though he might succeed from a poor seedling growing wild, if it had come from a garden-stock. The pear, though cultivated in classical times, appears, from Pliny's description, to have been a fruit of very inferior quality. I have seen great surprise expressed in horticultural works at the wonderful skill of gardeners, in having produced such splendid results from such poor materials; but the art, I cannot doubt, has been simple, and, as far as the final result is concerned, has been followed almost unconsciously. It has consisted in always cultivating the best known variety, sowing its seeds, and, when a slightly better variety has chanced to appear, selecting it, and so onwards. But the gardeners of the classical period, who cultivated the best pear they could procure, never thought what splendid fruit we should eat; though we owe our excellent fruit, in some small degree, to their having naturally chosen and preserved the best varieties they could anywhere find.A large amount of change in our cultivated plants, thus slowly and unconsciously accumulated, explains, as I believe, the well-known fact, that in a vast number of cases we cannot recognise, and therefore do not know, the wild parent-stocks of the plants which have been longest cultivated in our flower and kitchen gardens. If it has taken centuries or thousands of years to improve or modify most of our plants up to their present standard of usefulness to man, we can understand how it is that neither Australia, the Cape of Good Hope, nor any other region inhabited by quite uncivilised man, has afforded us a single plant worth culture. It is not that these countries, so rich in species, do not by a strange chance possess the aboriginal stocks of any useful plants, but that the native plants have not been improved by continued selection up to a standard of perfection comparable with that given to the plants in countries anciently civilised.
3. 精准医疗有助于疾病的精确诊断分型(如癌症的不同分型),从分子层面解释疾病,尤其是癌症的发病机理。
4. 地图按一定的比例、方位,详细地彩绘了西汉长沙国南部(今湖南、广东、广西等省区的衔接地带)的山脉、山峰、河流、水源、县城、乡里、道路、里程等,内容之丰富,勘测之精密,绘画之艺术,均显示了当时的高超水平,是我国现存最早的并以实际勘测为基础的彩色地图,并以其古老、精湛而名震中外,堪称为中国古典地图观止,被世界历史地理制图界人士誉称为惊人的发现.马王堆出土的汉初地图,是目前世界上发现最早的以实测为基础的古典地图。它表明了我国2100多年前地图科学的蓬勃发展和地图测绘技术的高度水平。
5. 在好莱坞完成一系列高调收购的娱乐业大亨王健林、以及互联网巨头马云(Jack Ma)分别以321亿美元和306亿美元的财富,保住了他们在榜单上的头名和次名位置。
6. 2015年7月 吴谢宇曾乘火车离开福州。


1.   "I will tell you everything," answered Ulysses, "quite truly. I comefrom Alybas, where I have a fine house. I am son of king Apheidas, whois the son of Polypemon. My own name is Eperitus; heaven drove meoff my course as I was leaving Sicania, and I have been carried hereagainst my will. As for my ship it is lying over yonder, off theopen country outside the town, and this is the fifth year sinceUlysses left my country. Poor fellow, yet the omens were good forhim when he left me. The birds all flew on our right hands, and bothhe and I rejoiced to see them as we parted, for we had every hope thatwe should have another friendly meeting and exchange presents."
2.   There was only one other event in this half-year, out of the daily school-life, that made an impression upon me which still survives. It survives for many reasons.
3. 1987年,中国大陆几乎没人听说过进食障碍时,张大荣的导师、精神病学家沈渔邨就提出,这将是未来中国的一个严重问题。
4. 而出兵最多的俄国和日本则是各怀鬼胎,不久以后就发生了日俄战争,它们是中国的近邻,对中国有强烈的领土野心,所以彼此有激烈的竞争。只不过日本人当时表现得比较文明,占领之后也做了很多公益的事业,比如修筑公厕,还就此制定各种规章,比如不允许随地大小便等。之前的北京城从来都是污水横流,也没有下水道,只有一条大沟,这沟是由满人管理,但满人又不干事,每年只清理一次,总之是一塌糊涂。这个改观就是从八国联军占领北京开始的,后来新政接上这个茬,开始置办警察和公共卫生系统,北京人这个时候才懂得了不能随地大小便的道理。日本在中国的占领装出了文明的倾向,所以后来在日俄战争中,中国的舆论大都是站在日本那边的。
5. 我自己也提醒自己,要吃饱吃好,多吃,这样我的抵抗力就强。
6.   `I consider this is really the heart of England,' said Clifford to Connie, as he sat there in the dim February sunshine.


1. 而红星新闻记者注意到,华为在世界5G大会上也表示,正在也积极打造云游戏,游戏行业也许正经历着暴风雨前的平静。
2.   This was one of the places that Sir Geoffrey had cut during the war for trench timber. The whole knoll, which rose softly on the right of the riding, was denuded and strangely forlorn. On the crown of the knoll where the oaks had stood, now was bareness; and from there you could look out over the trees to the colliery railway, and the new works at Stacks Gate. Connie had stood and looked, it was a breach in the pure seclusion of the wood. It let in the world. But she didn't tell Clifford.
3. 本以为从此可以过上相夫教子的幸福生活,没想到2018年8月,徐女士发现丈夫疑似有外遇了。
4.   'Let me see,' said Mr. Omer. 'Barkis's the carrier's wife - Peggotty's the boatman's sister - she had something to do with your family? She was in service there, sure?'
5. 原标题:村支书垫付4.5万修路款2年没着落,妻子:不要流汗又流泪俗话说,要致富,先修路。
6.   "A woman whom I don't know, but who is called Milady.""But if you don't know this woman, how do you know hername?"


1. 过了年,晓丽23岁,她们一家五口年前从武汉回老家后,和同是武汉回来的八位亲戚待在一起。
2.   Mrs Bolton helped Clifford to bed at night, and slept across the passage from his room, and came if he rang for her in the night. She also helped him in the morning, and soon valeted him completely, even shaving him, in her soft, tentative woman's way. She was very good and competent, and she soon knew how to have him in her power. He wasn't so very different from the colliers after all, when you lathered his chin, and softly rubbed the bristles. The stand-offishness and the lack of frankness didn't bother her; she was having a new experience.
3. 第一财经保留追究侵权者法律责任的权利。

网友评论(65952 / 41320 )

  • 1:张江男 2020-07-24 00:56:29

      The Cloake is laid up by Belcolore, and Sir Simon so forward inhis affection; that (in briefe) he enjoyed what hee came for; anddeparted afterward in his light tripping Cassocke, but yet thorowby-Lanes, and no much frequented places, smelling on a Nosegay, asif hee had beene at some wedding in the Countrey, and went thuslightly without his Cloake, for his better ease. As commonly afteractions of evill, Repentance knocketh at the doore of Conscience,and urgeth a guilty remembrance, with some sence of sorrow: so wasit now with sweet Sir Simon, who survayin over all his vailes ofoffering Candles, the validity of his yearely benefits, and allcomming nothing neere the summe of (scarce halfe) sixe and twentyFlorines; he began to repent his deed of darkenesse, although it wasacted in the day-time, and considered with himselfe, by what honest(yet unsuspected meanes) hee might recover his Cloake againe, beforeit went to the Broaker, in redemption of Belcolores pawnedapparrell, and yet to send her no Florines neither.

  • 2:泰伦斯·马利克 2020-07-31 00:56:29


  • 3:简俊晖 2020-07-28 00:56:29


  • 4:崇恩才 2020-07-19 00:56:29

      For *all be* that I know not Love indeed, *albeit, although* Nor wot how that he *quiteth folk their hire,* *rewards folk for Yet happeth me full oft in books to read their service* Of his miracles, and of his cruel ire; There read I well, he will be lord and sire; I dare not saye, that his strokes be sore; But God save such a lord! I can no more.

  • 5:金华山 2020-07-28 00:56:29


  • 6:李柱梁 2020-08-01 00:56:29


  • 7:李思蓓 2020-07-22 00:56:29


  • 8:徐凯 2020-07-28 00:56:29


  • 9:李仁港 2020-07-22 00:56:29


  • 10:吴素蓉 2020-07-24 00:56:29

      When Connie went up to her bedroom she did what she had not done for a long time: took off all her clothes, and looked at herself naked in the huge mirror. She did not know what she was looking for, or at, very definitely, yet she moved the lamp till it shone full on her.